THE LONGITUDINAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHONOLOGY AND ARITHMETIC: BETWEEN AGES 3 AND 12
E. Smith-Woolley1, A.S. Malykh2, 3, E.V. Galazinsky4, I.A. Voronin2, 4, Y. Kovas1, 2, 4
1 Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK; 2 Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia; 3 National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI», Moscow, Russia; 4 National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Much research into phonological abilities and arithmetic over time has suggested an association between these traits. The present study explored this relationship over a period of 9 years using a crosslagged design. Data from 2511 dizygotic and 3584 monozygotic twins across 4 waves of assessment from age 3 to age 12 were analysed. A bi-directional cross-lagged model fit the data best, showing that for both arithmetic and phonology there were significant associations from early measures on one trait to later measures on the other trait, even after controlling for contemporaneous (same time) associations.
Keywords: arithmetic, phonology, relationships, longitudinal study.